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A Design Workshop for 

the East Garrison at Fort Ord 

Monterey County, CA 

The Mayors Institute on City Design: West 

University ol California, Berkeley 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Leadership Initiative for Federal Property Conversion 

A Design Workshop for 

the East Garrison at Fort Ord 

Monterey County, CA 


The Mayors Institute on City Design: West 

University of California, Berkeley 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Leadership Initiative for Federal Property Conversion 

This project is supported in part by a cooperative agreement 
from the National Endowment for the Arts. 





Planning Context 
•ast Garrison History 
Existing Conditions 




ayors Institute on City Design: West 
ommunity Goal Setting 
Design Charrette Workshop 
esign Review 
ational Panel Analysis 
owards a Master Plan for the East Garrison 









'■ ■'-. 


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The Mayors Institute on City Design, sponsored 
by the National Endowment for the Arts, brings 
to community attention the power of city design 
and the idea that the design of places can be an 
important tool in local decision making. 
The Mayors Institute became part of the East 
Garrison planning process when local activists 
brought the project to the attention of the 
Endowment's Leadership Initiative. The Mayors 
Institute on City Design: West at the University 
of California, Berkeley, assembled a team of faculty 
members, prominent design professionals, NEA 
Design leaders and students who worked with 
public agencies and private groups interested in 
developing a fresh approach to the East Garrisons 
unresolved planning process. 

The project was first considered at the MICD: W conference 
in Berkeley, California, in November 1996. Edith Johnsen, 
then Chair of the Monterey County Board of Supervisors, 
presented the East Garrison as a case study to the panel of 
mayors, resource persons and University of California faculty 
members. At the end of the Institute, Supervisor Johnsen 
suggested that the NEA support further design exploration 
of East Garrison planning issues. 

< .This report reflects the effort to practice 

a profound democratic principle: 

that we, as a people, 

can govern ourselves 
and make wise decisions in the common interest. 

Together, a group of people came to the East Garrison to work with 
each other and the land itself to meet our complex needs, hopes, 
dreams, and visions. 

We set three goals: 

1 To learn how we might shape the land in ways 
that would serve the whole community. 

2 To find new democratic practices as an example 
for this region, the state and the nation. 

3 To discover how to share a long happy future 
of stewardship with the land itself. 

The land, Ft. Ord's East Garrison, is a dramatic site with an important 
history. Ft. Ord as a whole has been the focus of an extraordinary- 
planning effort during the past six years. Already significant parts of 
its 28,000 acres have been integrated into the community-most as part 
of the state university system and as a 17,000 acre Bureau of Land 
Management environmental conservation area.The East Garrison's 
approximately 750 acres provide a different opportunity and challenge 
for the community design process. 

The National Endowment for the Arts which sponsors both the Federal 
Property Conversion Leadership Initiative and the Mayors Institute on 
City Design collaborated with UC Berkeley to bring design teams to the 
East Garrison. The Mayors Institute on City Design: West, held in 
Berkeley in November, 1996, began to explore the site and was looking 
toward developing an exploratory forum that would bring all interested 
sectors of the community together in a collaborative process to consider 
a win/win shared future for the East Garrison. Part of that process was 
to bring outstanding designers to the site itself to join the community 
in exploring the future development of the East Garrison. 

to learn 

to find 

The Fort Ord Reuse Authority, Monterey County leadership, representatives 
from groups interested in the East Garrison site, and planners and architects 
from UC Berkeley and elsewhere used the opportunity presented by these 
workshops to look carefully at the site itself; and then began to discuss ideas 
and to develop a vision leading to a set of shared principles for the future 
development of the East Garrison. The following report summarizes the 
process and results of the site analysis, two weekend workshops, and reviews, 
and public presentations. 

Samina Quraeshi 

Director of Design 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Understanding the site itself, both its physical form and its 
community meaning, is the critical component in planning 
the East Garrison's future. That understanding was approached 
through guided site walks and facilitated workshops, and 
informed the work of the three University of California, 
Berkeley, design teams during the design workshops as well as a 
national panel of design professionals who reviewed the schemes 
and proposed next steps. In the community participation process 
continuing to date, computer modeling of a composite scheme 
furthered the community's understanding of the site and 
provided an additional tool for assessing development and design 



Six main principles emerged from analysis of the site. 

The land, with its sharply differentiated plateau, 
sloping meadows and clusters of trees should be 
the first consideration in organizing structures 
and activities on the site. 

The pattern of construction on the site is derived 
directly from the army's requirements for 
mobilizing and training recruits. Proper treatment 
of the buildings and their immediate surroundings 
should include elements that would make the 
history of this remarkable place clear. 

The way the site has been used offers suggestions 
for its future. The great parade grounds were in fact 
camp grounds, occupied at full mobilization by rows 
and rows of tents rigorously planned and organized 
by parallel roads but undulating across the land and 
dodging existing oaks. 

^% All uses and development of the site whether 
through minimal investment or through major 
transformation should in some way reflect on 
the history and character of the place and the 
significance of its transformation from swords 
to plowshares. These uses can include education, 
culture, and the simple pleasures of being in a 
peaceful landscape. 

^ Whatever future the East Garrison has is intimately 
tied to the arrangements and provisions made for 
the rest of Fort Ord and is dependent on the 
resources, both financial and natural, that will be 
required for Fort Ord's transformation. 

^% Site development should be compact so that uses 
are centered around areas already developed. This 
approach to development will consume less land 
for new construction, promote the reuse of existing 
buildings, and limit the cost for new infrastructure. 

The national panel confirmed that the configuration of the land and the 
history of the site should guide decisions about the use of the site. Panel 
members directed discussion to future uses and proposed an organized 
structure for stewardship of the land. 

The discussion resulted in a set of recommendations for the 
future development of the East Garrison site. 

• Recognize that the site and its history should set the context in which 
decisions are made about the site. 

• Create an organization charged with developing a shared vision for the 
East Garrison and with preserving its fundamental qualities. 

• Work with professional designers, planners and other consultants to 
explore these ideas further using the three design schemes as a 
starting point. 

Elaborate and give greater detail to the findings of this report. 

Initiate a survey to identify historically valuable elements at the 
East Garrison and to analyze their reuse potential. 

Review issues of access and transportation planning, including the 
road proposed by the California Department of Transportation. 
Assess the need for improved access to the East Garrison. 
Critically review the current proposal for a new road through the 
East Garrison that connects Salinas to the Monterey Peninsula. 

• Prepare an economic analysis of the uses currently identified for the East 
Garrison. Identify funding mechanisms for those uses. 

Throughout the process, public officials and representatives of the 
various groups involved in the East Garrison plans communicated 
with each other about the site in the context framed by the design teams 
and the architects of the national panel. The charrettes, reviews, and 
presentations became an opportunity to show that the site, its character 
and qualities, can indeed provide a framework for future development 
that is clearly understandable by the community. Most important, 
such a framework allows the site itself to impose limits on development 
and suggest opportunities for future place making. 

East Garrison. 1 94 1 .Rows of Tents Filled 
both of the Parade Grounds 

Planning Context 

Base Reuse Planning 

Urban design has played a minimal role in the military base reuse 
planning process throughout the history of base closures in the 
United States. The reuse of these bases is often dictated by former 
military use and the requirement for economic success. Many 
former bases promote similar uses such as education facilities, 
airports, industrial parks and housing. 

The design process has usually played only a small role in the 
redevelopment process. When urban design has been included in the 
conversion planning process, its role has been as a tool for defining 
existing conditions. Very rarely has design been used as an agent for 
understanding, promoting, and implementing land use decisions. 
In addition to the lack of attention to design in the reuse plans, the 
reuse planning process has often not succeeded in helping communities 
achieve consensus on the economic aspects of the plan. The past decade 
of reuse planning demonstrates that communities have a difficult time 
reaching an agreement about how a base will be reused. 

Fort Ord Reuse Planning 

Fort Ord was designated for closure in 1 99 1 . Six jurisdictions are 
involved in the planning process and the economic success of the 
reuse plan will clearly affect the future of the smaller communities. 
Reuse plans have been developed, modified and developed again. 
Design has played only a very small part in developing the process 
or defining the outcomes. 

In 1990 with the first rumors of closure, former Congressman Leon 
Panetta established the Fort Ord Community Task Force charged with 
developing a consensus on the future of Fort Ord. In June 1992, the 
Task Force released its strategy for the reuse of Fort Ord. Over 180 
recommendations were made. One of the recommendations of the Task 
Force report was that the new campus of the California State University 
system be located at Fort Ord. 

The Task Force, however, was only an advisory body. An official planning 
body, the Fort Ord Reuse Group was established in October 1992 to 
develop a reuse plan based on the work of the Task Force. In December 
1992, the Reuse Group published a preliminary reuse plan which relied 
heavily on the Task Force's earlier strategy document. During 1993 the 
Reuse Group continued working towards developing a reuse plan. 

Top: courtesy of California Stale 
University, Monterey Bay 

Bottom: photo by Ron Thomas 

There was still, however, no formal reuse planning body which could 
make decisions about the base. In December of 1993, the State of 
California was forced to assist the jurisdictions establish a formal reuse 
authority. This planning body, still at work today, was formed through 
special legislation passed in May of 1994 and is known as the Fort Ord 
Reuse Authority (FORA). FORA maintains a governing board of 13 
members, including three members of the Monterey County Board of 
Supervisors, two city council members each from the Cities of Seaside 
and Marina and one city council member from the cities of Carmel, 
Del Rey Oaks, Sand City, Monterey, Pacific Grove and Salinas. 

Reaching consensus about the site's future is the key step required by 
legislation for the Army to convey the property to FORA. Five stake- 
holders have been recognized as part of the effort to obtain agreement on 
reuse of the base. These five are the Monterey Peninsula Community 
College's Public Safety Training program, a coalition of artists (Arts 
Habitat), an equestrian group (Monterey Equestrian Group), a group of 
Native Americans (Akicita Luta Intertribal Society), and Monterey 
County itself. The Public Safety Training Program has applied for a 
Public Benefit Conveyance (PBC), a mechanism for transferring federal 
property to another government agency or an educational institution. 
Although an application for this conveyance had already been made at 
the time of the Mayors Institute, the county wanted all stakeholders to 
achieve consensus about site use before it supported the PBC. 

East Garrison History 

i* W DEAD IU9M, <)«- 




30th Overflow Moves To E. Garrisc 

1948 Ghost City 

Fort Ord dates back to 1917 when the United States government bought 
several ranches and land of the City of Monterey Tract No. I, altogether 
15,325 acres. The area was then called the Gigling Reservation after a 
German family living there. The army used the area primarily for maneuvers 
and field artillery target practice. The first significant work on the reservation 
began in 1938. With an $800,000 appropriation from the Works Progress 
Administration, a large camp was built about a mile east of the Gigling 
railroad spur. Eventually the WPA received more than $6,000,000 
for the construction work which became the center of what was then called 
Camp Ord, now the East Garrison. The main garrison was called Fort 
Clayton; and in December 1 940, two camps were combined to form a new 
entity named Fort Ord. 

During January 1940, almost a year before the United States entered World War 
II, maneuvers were held at Fort Ord involving approximately 10,000 troops. 
These maneuvers included the 3rd Infantry which remained to train at Camp 
Ord, later the East Garrison. Many other units were organized and trained 
at the East Garrison immediately before and during World War II, including 
the 48th, 49th, and 57th Field Artillery Battalions and the 757th Tank Battalion. 
In 1941 temporary buildings were constructed and these units traded their tent 
accommodations at East Garrison for the temporary buildings. After the war, 
Fort Ord housed a Troop Separation Center but in December, 1945 it closed; 
and the East Garrison area was abandoned. 

Facts on East Garrison History 
,/ John R. McCulchon, 
California Slate University, 
Monterey Bay 

Photos courtesy of California 
State University, Mo>: 

In 1952, the East Garrison was rehabilitated for the approximately 1000 soldiers 
of the 6230th Reception Center whose main task was to process and assign 
new soldiers. The quarters of the 6230th consisted of winterized tents. This 
was the first time since the end of World War II that a significant number of 
soldiers had used the East Garrison. For the next thirty-five years the East 
Garrison remained an active part of Fort Ord. The 7th Light Infantry Division 
made its home at the East Garrison and the area was used for training the reserve 
components of the National Guard. Fort Ord was listed for closure in 1991. 

Existing Conditions 

Fort Ord, once home to one of thirteen major division-sized troop installations in the 
United States, encompasses approximately 28,000 acres of Monterey County, California. 
The base is located adjacent to the Monterey Bay, a national marine sanctuary. 
From the Bay, the base stretches inland along the edge of the Salinas River Valley. 
Seventy-three percent of the facility (20,194 acres) is unincorporated land within 
Monterey County, fifteen percent (4,122 acres) is within the city limits of Seaside, 
and twelve percent (3,361 acres) is within the city limits of Marina.Three other cities 
abut the base: Monterey, Del Rey Oaks and Sand City. 

Approximately 6,250 acres of the site are developed. The base's 18.5 
million square feet of facilities include over 1 5,000 housing units, an 
airstrip, a hospital, six schools, a golf course, baseball diamonds, 
recreational facilities and a stadium. Over seventy percent of the base 
is undeveloped, including 1 ,400 acres of prime beach front real estate. 

The East Garrison area (the so-called East Garrison polygon) includes 
about 750 acres at the northeast corner of Fort Ord adjacent to the 
edge of the Salinas River Valley. It is separated from the main 
part of Fort Ord by vast stretches of open space, most covered with 
oak trees and now under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land 
Management.There are a number of small buildings at the East 
Garrison but much of it is also open space. Two large areas referred 
to as parade grounds were once filled with tents used by soldiers 
mobilizing for war. 

Swales and Ridge: 


Oaks and Glades 

Garrison Grid 




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The Land 

The East Garrison at Fort Ord is perched on the edge of a plateau that 
forms an escarpment along the lower Salinas River Valley. Despite the 
East Garrison's long history as a place for military training, many of the 
plateau's natural conditions remain. Few landscapes exist next to 
urbanized areas in California that encompass such a large piece of land 
so densely covered with oaks. Steep ravines cut through the plateau's 
escarpment, connecting it to the Salinas River Valley. On the plateau the 
ravines continue in the form of gentle swales. Frequently lined and 
sometimes covered with oak groves, these swales are important features 
of the East Garrison's landscape. 

The East Garrison is a 750 acre parcel on the eastern edge of this 
plateau. A person looking out over the edge of the escarpment stands 150 
feet above the regular lines of the flat agricultural patterns that cover the 
Salinas River Valley. The river runs on the near side of the valley, only 
250 feet away from the escarpment. The escarpment, measuring almost 
seven miles in length, separates the garrison from the broad valley below. 
Directly across the valley is Fremont Peak, a nose-shaped mountain of 
the Gabilan Range. 

The undeveloped land to the north and west separates the garrison from 
the rest of Fort Ord and from the urbanized areas of the Monterey 
Peninsula. The steep ravines at the East Garrison are generally without 
surface water. Two ravines frame the large promontory of the garrison. 
Both ravines carry roads; one is narrow and winding, the other is wide 
and straight. In its natural condition with a narrow road, the southern 
ravine is densely covered with vegetation. The large road in the northern 
ravine, in contrast, obliterates the land form. 

At a point where the ravines reach the plateau they continue as gentle 
swales across the land in the east-west direction. Three swales traverse 
the East Garrison and are separated by soft ridges. 

Patterns of Construction 

Created with military utility and efficiency in mind, the construction grid 
consists of a central parade ground that is designed to accommodate a 
regular spread of tents on a large rectangle. The parade ground follows 
the direction of the escarpment and its axis runs diagonally to the swales. 
As a result the large rectangle stretches over both swales and ridges 
making the roads that line the parade ground rise and fall with the land. 
Nine mess halls line the rectangle on the escarpment side and eleven 
latrines line the opposite side. Except for four large sheds in the northern 
section of the parade ground the large rectangle is free of buildings 
though one half is paved. The parade ground is met by a perpendicular 
road through the former prisoner of war camp. 

An even larger parade ground is set off at a short distance to the west 
of the central parade ground. Although the two rectangles do not meet, 
they are connected on the site by a knoll, skirted by a grove of large oaks 
on its eastern side, and a swale. A chapel sitting on top of the knoll 
overlooks both parade grounds. 

. ► •♦ 


< Michael Olio. 


There are nine mess halls, U-shaped, single story, painted concrete buildings with clay tile roofs. 
The interiors have exposed wood trusses; and there are large stone fireplaces in each leg of the "U." 

The eleven latrine buildings are rectangular shaped, single story, painted concrete buildings 
with clay tile roofs. Interiors have a water heating system located in the center, dressing areas 
on each side and toilet rooms on the ends. 

There is a large, wood framed theater on concrete foundations on sloped site. 
The exterior and interior are in significant state of disrepair. 

The chapel is a rectangular wood frame building with a steeple over the entry door. It is built 
on a concrete foundation with wood frame walls and covered with horizontal painted siding 
on its exterior. 

There are eight single story rectangular warehouse buildings with concrete walls and clay tile 
roofs. These buildings housed prisoners of war. 

The Rod and Gun Club is a single story rectangular building with concrete walls, and clay tile 
roof. Along its south side, the building has a covered porch supported by wood posts on concrete 

The four pre— engineered steel buildings at the northern end of the parade ground have 
structural steel frames, metal siding and roofing, floor slabs on grade and no interior finishes 
or insulation. 

Also on the site are a number of wooden buildings of different sizes. Some of these have 
reuse potential. At the time of this study no detailed report on the structural condition of 
any of these buildings was available. 

There are also stone walls, concrete foundations and wooden exercise and training structures 
located throughout the site. 

A potentially acitve seismic fault line (Fort Ord Reuse Plan, Draft EIR, 
Figure 4.6-3) at the edge of the East Garrison emphasizes the importance of 
further study of the structural condition of existing buildings. Understanding 
the implications of the potential occurrence of severe ground shaking hazards 
is vital to any site use considerations, including the construction of new 
buildings and the feasibility of reusing existing structures. 



At the time of this study, a number of groups had expressed interest in 
developing the East Garrison site for their programs. Representatives 
from each of these stakeholder groups participated in the process. The 
user groups prepared brief programs and space requirements for the 
design teams.These are summarized below. Other ideas for site use had 
been mentioned by the County in its mixed use development plan for 
the site. These ideas included a spa/hotel, research and development 
space and light industry.There were not, however, specific programs for 
any of these uses. 

Of approximately 750 acres included in the East Garrison polygon, only 
200 are developable. The rest has been set aside as part of the Bureau of 
Land Management's Habitat Management area. Most of the stakeholder 
programs assumed that all 200 acres would be used. 

Arts Habitat 

Arts Habitat is an umbrella group representing visual, performing and 
literary artists and arts organizations. The group proposed facilities for 
a self sustaining mixed use arts center providing space for the creation, 
rehearsal, production, presentation, storage, administration, and teaching 
of the arts as well as housing for the artists. Arts Habitat's proposal 
framed its program requirements in the context of the reuse of existing 
buildings around the central parade ground. 

Monterey Equestrian Group 

A group of horseback riding enthusiasts proposed an Equestrian Center, 
a multi-use facility that would accommodate a variety of competitive 
and non competitive events. Facilities would include indoor and outdoor 
arenas, training barns, training facilities, a clubhouse with restaurant, 
offices, retail. There would also be picnic and camping areas and a 
livestock exhibition area. 

The Akicita Luta Intertribal Society 

Akicita Luta Intertribal Society, comprised of Native Americans living 
in the Monterey Bay area, proposed a Native American cultural and 
educational preserve of modest size. This would be a place where native 
American citizens could gather to celebrate their culture and educate 
children in traditional values. Activities would include youth instruction, 
pow wows, outdoor cooking and lodge ceremonies. 

Monterey County Sheriff's Office/MPC 

The Monterey County Sheriff's Office through Monterey Peninsula 
Community College (MPC) proposed using the East Garrison site as a 
regional law enforcement training center. The center would meet the 
needs of all public safety agencies, both law enforcement and fire science. 
The East Garrison site and existing buildings could provide locations for 
scenario training, city street defensive driving, corrections training, etc. 
New classrooms and administrative space would be required. 

Local Government 

Monterey County officials proposed an economic development 
component on this site which included an office park, research and 
development uses, light industrial use, and a spa hotel. 

finding - and forging - relationships. 

Relationships between: 

people and things 

people and buildings 

buildings and buildings 

buildings and landscape 

landscape and resources 

landscape and institutions 

institutions and process 

process and people 

people and community 

"design is a strategic national resource 
and a catalyst for change." 

Samina Quraeshi 

Design is cyclical. To find and forge relationships it must continue to 
uncover possibilities, then test them: fuse some, discard some, try again, 
assemble a network of relationships-the parts of which will take on a life 
of their own. 

The design process can be used to bring people to understand each 
other's intentions and suppositions, and the resources (mental and 
otherwise) that can be brought to the effort. 

Design is a way of imagining what the life of a place might 
become; how the relationships considered may affect the people 
and institutions who will use it, how the processes brought about 
by specific uses may influence their common place. Design does 
I so by projecting and assessing possibilities, and by registering 
the transformation in existing conditions that new arrangements 
would bring about. 

Design can be a way of imagining how to steward the qualities 
that a community cares for; it can be a means for bringing people 
to care. By showing possibilities for reuse, for reinvestment in the 
surroundings, for modes of transformation that retain a consistency 
in character and yet bring renewed vitality to the place, design can 
suggest how various segments of a community can achieve mutual 


The cycles of design project possible futures in ways that can 
be examined and imagined, they unfold new relationships and 
open further possibilities. These forays into the future can help 
citizens, the ultimate stewards of our common environment, 
to conceive the public interest. 

Design, if it engages public process, can be a means for articulating 
community vision. It can bring people to know about change 
and to care for its impact on the commonwealth of public places. 

Donlyn Lyndon 

Coordinator, Mayors Institute: West 


Mayors Institute on City Design: West 

November 16, 1996 

At the 1996 Mayors Institute on City Design: West, Supervisor Edith 
Johnsen of Monterey County, also a member of the Fort Ord Reuse 
Authority, presented the East Garrison as a case study to a panel consisting 
of elected officials, mayors, and multidisciplinary resource faculty. Supervisor 
Johnsen explained the county's mixed use development proposal for the site. 
In the discussion of the case, the panel was impressed by the importance of 
understanding the character of the site and its cultural history. The panel 
recommended that county planners explore these conditions as thoroughly 
as possible before approving any of the stakeholder proposals. The panel also 
suggested identifying common activities among the different proposed uses. 
It might be possible, in fact, for parts of the stakeholder programs to share 
the same place, leading to a more compact development of the land as well 
as to the development of an East Garrison community. The discussion 
emphasized the importance of a shared vision among all parties involved in 
the East Garrison planning process. 

Photo by Ron Thomas 

Community Goal Setting 

January 31, 1997 
East Garrison 

The workshop began with a guided site walk both to help community participants 
become familiar with the site and to help relate the language of urban design 
to the specific issues of the East Garrison. The walk included stops at seven locations 
at the East Garrison where participants looked at natural and built forms, 
discussed scale, spatial configuration, and the character of the landscape, and made 
personal observations. Participants used a specially prepared site walk notebook 
which presented site design issues and questions at each stop. Through the site walk, 
participants directly experienced the East Garrison's landscape. 

After the site walks, in the East Garrison's Battle Simulation Building, participants 
identified those characteristics of the East Garrison they would most want to see at 
the site in the future. This vision activity, guided by facilitator Ron Thomas, used a 
process of individual brainstorming, group sharing at discussion tables, and recording 
of short statements of key ideas on note cards. These were collected in a sequence 
process, paired, clustered, and then named, eventually resulting in a matrix of 
community goal. 


Design Charrette Workshop 

January 31 through February 2, 1997 
East Garrison 

Working with program materials prepared by the stakeholder groups and 
with the ideas generated in the goal setting workshop, three UC Berkeley 
design teams began to look at site development. The teams agreed to 
focus on different design scenarios which reflected increased intensity of 
development. The first scenario accommodated many components of the 
stakeholders' proposals. The second scenario envisioned a campus for 
research and development activities in addition to the stakeholder 
proposals. For the third scenario, the design team integrated a hill town 
of 3500 residents with stakeholder programs. 

The teams worked from Friday night through midday Sunday developing 
their individual scenarios. Working together in the same workshop space 
made possible open communication among the teams. During the Saturday 
session, county staff provided support which included a briefing on the 
identified planning issues and the ongoing county planning process. 
Stakeholders were invited to visit the charrette at the end of the day 
Saturday and participated in nearly two hours of intense discussion with 
members of the design teams. 

The Sunday morning session began with short overview presentations by 
each of the three team leaders. Discussion and dialogue followed once all 
presentations had been made. The discussions provided the design teams 
with insights about refining the schemes and provided stakeholders with an 
understanding of how program goals would fit in an integrated multi-use 
design that respected the landscape and history of the East Garrison. 


Design Review 

February 3 through 21, 1997 
Berkeley and Monterey Bay Area 

Photo by Ron Thomas 

At the conclusion of the weekend Design Charrette, the design teams 
returned to Berkeley and developed the scenarios further. Additional 
drawings and sketches were made to illustrate the main ideas of each of 
the schemes. A narrative was written that described overall goals as 
well as the intention and conclusions from each scheme. The schemes 
were photographed and printed for review. 

Stakeholders met in two groups to review and comment on the schemes. 
Both groups were comprised of public officials and representatives from 
each of the interest groups. In the discussion during these meetings, 
people, whose imaginations had been triggered by the design process, 
began to see themselves actively using the site and meeting with each 
other. Both groups presented their observations at a public session 
at the beginning of the review by the national panel. 

National Panel Analysis 

February 21 through 23, 1997 
East Garrison 

Frances Halsband, Hugh Hardy and Robert Harris, a panel of designers 
nationally known for their understanding of urban design issues, had 
reviewed the Mayors Institute briefing papers, information from the 
community goal setting session, and the design schemes and narratives 
before arriving at the East Garrison. They began, as had other participants 
in the design and planning process, by walking and observing the site 
itself They also heard presentations from the stakeholders, now called the 
East Garrison Participants Group. The panel then spent the weekend 
developing together a set of design principles and recommendations to 
move toward a master plan for the reuse of the East Garrison. 

On February 23, the panel presented its work at a community meeting 
attended by public officials, representatives of public agencies and 
members of stakeholder groups. The panel articulated a shared vision, 
suggested next steps, and proposed ways to focus on the actions 
required for successful East Garrison planning in the future. 

Photo by Ron Thomas 


Towards a Master Plan for the East Garrison 

April 1997 to present 
Berkeley and Salinas 

In May of 1997, the UC Berkeley East Garrison design team reported on the outcome of the design 
workshops to the Monterey County Board of Supervisors, and at a separate meeting to the Ford Ord 
Reuse Authority. The two presentations emphasized how design had been used to understand the im 
plications of decision-making. Many detailed drawings and photographs explained the unique 
composition of a military geometry laid upon a special landscape. Clearly, the site had inspired the 
design teams in the creation of places for new uses and the continuation of old ones. The response to 
the presentations was very positive, and the Monterey County Board of Supervisors adopted a resolution 
authorizing the Environmental Simulation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley to prepare 
visual material to aid staff in the development of a master plan for the East Garrison. 

Accommodating the Proposed Equestrian Center 

Possible Location for a Hotel and Spa 



After community participants had had a chance to experience the site 
through the guided site walk, they met as a group to identify goals 
for the East Garrison. In a process guided by facilitator Ron Thomas, 
people worked separately, then in pairs to clarify and prioritize their 
vision for the East Garrison's future. Concluding the goal setting session 
facilitator Ron Thomas helped the group categorize the identified 
goals. The resulting community goals matrix documents this part of 
the workshop. 



Great gathering 
ground vs. "fort" 









& Culture 

historical values 

Multiple Use I Compatible Use 

Linked to educational 
CSUMB, Mont. 
Inst. etc. 

Mass Transit; 
shuttles to reduce 
vehicle usage 

Clusters of 
activities around 
one center 

Living creative 



Monterey Bay Area 
becomes national 
focal point for 
Native American 

Public Safety 
Equestrian MECCA 

No Road Barriers 

Town square that 
unites use clusters 

Integrate peace 
Officer training 
into local 



Preservation of 
Historical Context 

Balanced economic 
& environmental 

Overall ambiance of 
development was 
well planned 


re vision 

Clear public & 
private realms 

Maintain the 
nature of a village 

No Free Lunch 

"Ye shall not 
suburbanize any 
military base." 
-Gen. George Pat/on 

Work Place 

Multiple & 
Delicate access 

Green Belt, Open 
Space recreational 

Integration of 



Cultural Economic 



Museum Place 

• History 

• Cultural 

• Security 

Integration of com- 
pact living with 
immediate access to 
natural park system 

Access for disabled 

Growth boundaries 

Mutual Meaning 

Plan enhances 
overall visit to 
central coast 

Memory of Place 

Catalyst to 
reinforce education 

Perimeter walking A compact village 

trail to be used hill town focused 

by residents on art & cultural 

& workers activities 

No commercializa- 
tion like "Cannery 



Variety of scales of 

Model of sustainable 
infrastructure & 

Swords into 

no big box 

community (with) 
a "Neighborhood 

Maintain the scale 
of the landscape 

No Disneyland or 
theming /Authentic 
community built on 
existing historic 
planning patterns 

Matrix b\ Ron Thomas 


All three proposals are informed by an understanding of the East 
Garrison landscape. The proposals can be understood as alternatives 
differing in the intensity of future uses. They might also be seen as 
three phases in a continuum over time. Seen as a continuum 
the first scheme accommodates activities associated with current 
stakeholders, including a law enforcement training center, an arts 
habitat, an equestrian facility, a Native American cultural center, a 
youth campground, and a resort with overnight accommodations. 
The second proposal, or second phase, adds a research and 
development campus and some housing to the site, and a 
third proposal adds further residential units creating a village 
that gives the site the character of a compact hilltown. 

Scheme A 

The scheme accommodates only those activities discussed during the first 
workshop with the current stakeholders. With the exception of the large 
equestrian indoor arena, only very modest interventions to the site are 
necessary to accommodate the various program requirements. Many parts 
of the site would not be used intensively and would remain open. These 
open spaces form a reserve for activities that might be added over time as 
the East Garrison community grows. Thus this scheme should be seen as 
the beginning of a process that builds on the existing structure without 
eliminating opportunities for additional uses. 

Overall Plan 


Equestrian Facilities 


Native American Pow Wow on Promontory 

GARRISON GRID youth museum 









JEW intersection 








U.KIll I 1VRI 


\ni ONOftAWMO] 


° AK (iROV|:S 

Site Isometric 


History Review Tower 

Scheme B 

This scheme envisions a moderate investment in new construction 
(about as much as is presently on the site) and the development of a 
campus-like arrangement that would involve many groups sharing 
in the use of the place. 

There are three main organizing ideas for the plan: 

• respect for the fundamental structure of the land; 

• preservation of elements imposed on the land by military settlement; 

• reuse of buildings and open spaces in a manner that is best suited to 
their intrinsic character. 

In addition, it was recognized that merging and overlapping of uses can 
promote efficient use of resources and provide a basis for the synergistic 
community that was described in the first workshop sessions. Uses which 
are entirely single purpose and demand intensely specialized structures 
of sequestered activities should be at the periphery, rather than the center 
of the site. 

East Garrison History Museum and Markers Commemorating Military Use of the Site. 


Overall Plan (Second Phase) 

Scheme C 

Mess Halls Refurbished for Use by Artists 

Scheme C envisions creating a compact "hill town" using the remnants 
of the East Garrison as the structure for a complete community which 
approaches the intensity of use of the original garrison. The concept 
posits that it will be necessary to maximize development income in 
order to fund the infrastructure and civic improvements desired by the 
users. It assumes that a critical mass of approximately 3500 residents is 
necessary to support a full service community. This scheme takes 
advantage of the fact that the planning principles for the original garrison 
create a beautifully situated, spatially rich and pedestrian scale community 
similar to other American towns built on military planning principles 
such as Savannah and Charleston. 

Overall Pla 

Residential Area 


Proposed Reuse and Addition to Warehouse Buildings 

^j i-J Lj i 










Town Entry Area 

Village Green 



In 1952 the renowned American landscape 
architect Laurie Olin was stationed at 
Fort Ord. His sketchbook drawings impressively 
illustrate Fort Ord's regional landscape and the 
soldier's daily life at the Garrison. 

Sketch by Laurie Olin 

Donlyn Lyndon 

Introduction of the National Panel 

An important part of any National Endowment for the Arts Design 
Initiative project is its review and critique by outstanding professionals 
in the field. These reviews can bring fresh insights to design projects, 
open new possibilities for study, and confirm the significance of the 
focus of the work.The Mayors Institute invited Frances Halsband, 
Hugh Hardy, and Robert Harris to serve on the national panel for 
the East Garrison. 

The three members of this panel bring to this review an extraordinary 
understanding of urban design issues as well as extensive experience in 
making thoughtful and successful urban places. 

Frances Halsband, whose firm Kliment and Halsband received the 
1997 American Institute of Architects Firm of the Year Award, has 
thought carefully about making new places within historic fabrics; 
and she has designed sensitively many such projects. Halsband has 
served on the New York City Landmarks Commission and was 
Dean of Pratt Institute of Design. 

Hugh Hardy's firm Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates is one of the 
premier design firms in the United States. He has designed cultural 
facilities throughout the country including the Downtown Public 
Library in Los Angeles, one of the truly extraordinary buildings in the 
United States. Hardy has been a member of the President's Council 
for the Arts. 

Robert Harris is co-chair of the Downtown Strategic Planning 
Committee for the City of Los Angeles. He is the former Dean of the 
School of Architecture and Planning at the University of Southern 
California. Harris was a resource person at the November 1 996 
Mayors Institute where the East Garrison case study was presented. 

Panel members explored the site, met with stakeholders, reviewed 
material prepared for the Mayors Institute and by the design teams, 
and then worked together to develop further the approach to East 
Garrison design and planning begun at the Mayors Institute. 

The following passages reflect the National F 
presentation to the community on February 23, l Qil ~ 


Robert Harris 

You know this place better than we do. 
You have a longer stake in it. 

But we care about it deeply too, 

and from a national perspective we think 
we have something to offer. 

We enormously appreciate the opportunity to work with you. I would 
briefly characterize where we are currently as having a kind of flowering 
of possibilities through all the explorations, through all the friction of 
groups trying to think about how they could co-exist in this place, and 
then through the work of this design team. Our National Panel has come 
not to stop that flowering of possibilities but just to take a break for a 
moment and to distill the principles and ambitions that we might all hold 
together before we then come back to grow the possibilities again. So 
we're not here to conclude anything. We are pausing for a moment to see 
some principles and extraordinary possibilities that are perhaps pervasive, 
and help you get back then to the business of expanding for yourselves 
how you can take advantage of the site. 

We do believe that you have made enormous progress towards 
accommodating the future in this currendy somewhat leftover but 
formerly very vital place. Our suggestion to you about the site is as 
citizens as well as professionals: give priority to three values: 

This is a place of national significance. The nation should expect us to be 
good stewards of this place for veterans — and there must have been 
hundreds of thousands of veterans. We are interested to know about 
those numbers since we have already heard earlier this morning of 
generations, fathers and sons, families, associated with this place. That 
has enormous significance and meaning for us as a nation as well as for 
individual veterans, as well as for future generations. As they come 
here, they ought to be able to learn something about how this country 
mobilized itself in relation to great purpose. 

The site of the East Garrison is especially significant in this way because 
of its early origins, because of its distinctness and its setting, and because 
of the way, so many of those who served and who were trained at Fort 
Ord were specifically trained and housed and had a significant experience 
at the East Garrison. 


This is not just one more beautiful landscape of which there are an 
enormous number in California. It is not only a beautiful landscape, but it 
is also an historic landscape. What makes this so special? What gives you 
the great opportunity of a future of meaning and significance, a kind of 
sustainable future over time, is the cultural history of what this place was 
about, how it was used, what it means. We encourage you not to lose sight 
of your great inheritance in the midst of immediate opportunity, an 
immediate ambition. We think this special heritage can be the key for 
providing the funding, the attractiveness, the excitement throughout time 
in this place. 

This is a landscape of uncommon quality. As we re-occupy the site, we 

think that we'd be foolish to do anything that might diminish the most 
fundamental qualities and characteristics of the landscape itself. We think 
that if you will do these two things, holding on to the significant national 
meaning of this place and protecting and enhancing the fundamental 
qualities of this landscape, you can sustain the quality and value of this 
place over time. What it means to you in terms of opportunity now, it can 
continue to mean to future generations in terms of opportunity because 
the most precious heritage of meaning and place will be preserved and 
perpetuated. That's our responsibility, and we believe it is a responsibility 
that can be fully held in relation to the third value. 

Reoccupy this place with dignity, with a sense of the past, but with 
enthusiasm and exuberance. From our studies, we believe that it is amply 

possible to do all of these: to hold on to meaning, to hold on to landscape, 
and to have a kind of exuberant future of new ambitions and new 
development and new opportunities. We're confident that those interests 
can be accommodated and as was described a moment ago, if none of 
the three schemes yet fully does that, it's just a matter of working hard 
together in some ways to get that done. We are confident that this can 
be done, and much more. Hold on to meaning and significance, and thus 
accommodate in a rather magnificent way, both our past and our future. 

Reoccupy this place with dignity, 
with a sense of the past, but with enthusiasm 
and exuberance. 

Top: courtesy of California State 
University, Montercx 

Bottom: sketch hy Ijiurie Olin 

Hugh Hardy 

Photo by huca Vignelli 

You are generous to let us come and 
speak as if we were knowledgeable 
about Fort Ord. 

I suppose this is fair, because in the future many people 
will arrive here from all over the country for all kinds of 
reasons, and although some may not be knowledgeable 
about the history of this place, you will want them to 
come, discover, and be educated. 

Discovering Fort Ord's past is as much 
a part of this as the opportunity it 
represents for development. 

A Public and a Private Place 

This place is an extraordinary public legacy, but in a very real sense it has 
also always been private because of its use as a military base. Down in the 
Valley people know little about what has happened up here. This has 
always been a separate, off-limits place. The Army's presence made this 
distinction, and the land here is still not part of public consciousness, 
except for those involved with training. This is a situation which will take 
time to change. We've already found that it is hard for people to see what 
actually exists here, not only just to get access and walk around, or to 
recognize that this place can form part of their community, but actually to 
understand what a rich resource it represents. Taken all together this is a 
jigsaw puzzle, some of whose pieces are missing. 

Ephemeral Buildings 

To begin with, it's an unusual landscape, the vast scale of it, with little 
one-story buildings rattling off into the distant perspective. These little 
buildings are far apart and built to be ephemeral. They were clearly an 
expedient, not designed as monuments to perpetuate memory. A great 
urgency of military training brought them into being. Many, of course, 
have gone. When you see those remarkable photographs of 1940/41 you 
discover how amazing tent cities were put in place as part of an inevitable 
progress toward World War II. Much of that scene has now vanished. 

we need to know much 
more about the 
history of this land and 
how it once was used. 


Mystery of Ephemera 

A lot of the excitement of visiting the site stems from trying to figure out 
what all these roads and structures are for. What could that have been? 
Or what did they do there? Or, isn't that patch of weeds a building site? 
What actually occurred over there? Inherent in all of this is the fact that 
this place was designed to be ephemeral and is disappearing — every day 
something else disappears, it's the nature of nature. 

Importance of History 

There needs to be more homework done about understanding what is 
still here. It's not exactly archeology that is called for. We don't have to 
go that far back. I know that there are studies already begun about which 
buildings should be kept and which should be thrown away, but basically 
that's at the level of a kind of code analysis. That's only the physical level 
of their importance. But we need to know much more about the history 
of this land and how it once was used. It's strange, isn't it, that all the 
records aren't still housed here? It's odd how often our team asked 
questions about places and events and how many times people scratched 
their heads and said, "I don't really know." There are pieces missing. Do 
you remember 2001, when the computer HAL loses his memory? That's 
the saddest, most poignant part of the picture, in which the computer, 
piece by piece, is losing its most important operational part, its memory. 

Understanding History 

There is a piece missing here, too, but that is not to say that it's necessary 
to restore the past. No one wants to put all this back together to fight a 
war. Rather, it needs to be better understood, because as this becomes a 
more developed place, many people will come to rediscover their history. 
This way its development will be far richer and will enjoy many more 
possibilities for success than if it's thought of as just another piece of 
California, just another place for a bunch of big retail boxes, or just the 
right site for another series of highway access points. 


Historic Structures Report 

So we need to know more. We need to have a true historic-structures 
report done. We need to know at every level, from everyone in the 
community who's interested, about the history of this place. They all 
need to be brought together to share every possibility for discovering 
what is visible and buried here. It is necessary to inform our knowledge 
about what these buildings are, what they meant, and even to under- 
stand those buildings which have not survived. 


Then there's the landscape. It is only in part made of built objects. 
Therefore in many ways a typical historic-structures report won't be 
good enough, because that would normally be all about buildings. An 
East Garrison report also has to be about all that space in between the 
buildings. In point of fact, the open space used for training was as 
important as the structures. Now, only the people are missing. We can't 
bring the people back, but we need to bring back the understanding of 
these vast reaches, for they best define the history of this place. If the 
landscape were now quickly filled with development, it would take a 
LONG time for anyone to understand how this place was once used. 


And so the openness and the giant scale inherent in this landscape 
represent an extraordinary, rolling, natural phenomenon overlaid with 
an autocratic, highly organized, militaristic form. From the air it all 
appears very, very rigid. But as you know, it is in fact quite an 
extraordinary, varied experience to walk around and try to figure 
out what it all means. Only when you see those little pipes coming 
up out of the weeds and imagine how they were used by people in 
the tents do you begin to understand what the whole represents. 


There are several forces which will inevitably change the landscape. 
One of them is the need for transportation — not only transportation 
around or through the site from one community to another, but all 
the forces that make regional, contemporary transportation work. The 
military brought people to this site in buses. In the future they will 
come in a variety of other ways. The thought that people are going to 
be able to come here only in their own private vehicles would lead to 
paving the entire site. So the relation of the regional transportation 
network to the site and its influence upon this place has got to be 
carefully considered. Access, buses, bicycles, parking, all of those 
things must find room. 

we need to bring back 
the understanding 
of these vast reaches, for 
they best define the 
history of this place. 



We have grave concerns about this whole problem of access. We are 

fascinated by the site's basic composition, because the parade ground 

could be kept open as a place of assembly for temporary activities of all 

kinds. Each community group has the need 

for such activities, and there is a whole 

laundry list of public events that might be 

taking place. If that could be reinforced by 

surrounding development, and if the ridge 

line (which once held yet another set of 

structures) could also form the basis of a 

development plan, we suspect this could be 

a way of thinking about the great legacy 

this site represents. 

Key Site Elements 


Another major factor is the whole ecology of the place. Maybe having 
buildings fall apart is important. Maybe there should be some place 
where you see natural forces at work. Maybe the ecological lessons that 
are here are of prime importance. Watching the Army rearrange the land- 
scape down by the sea in the name of saving it is quite extraordinary. It is 
startling to see how much land is being pushed around there in the belief 
that its chemical composition is going to be better, while its botanical life 
is being shattered. Clearly, one needs to study more about how to 
approach ecology in the East Garrison. 

Influence of Development 

And then, finally, we must address how the forces of development are 
going to influence this site. That is something that needs to be carefully 
accommodated. If you took this old parade ground and superimposed it 
on downtown Monterey you could see just how big it is. These city 
blocks have buildings of a familiar density, and when seen in relation to 
the East Garrison's dimensions are truly staggering. The relation of new 
to old, issues of utility, infrastructure, and future distribution all need to 
be addressed. 

Open Space 

Everywhere you look you find little clues that provide a key to the proper 
use of this place. The great parade ground has now been divided in half 
— half paved, half green. That's not correct. Maybe we shouldn't build 
there at all. But maybe we should re-establish this as a great green swath 
in order to generate a basic plan approach. One could start with the idea 
of these great, open dimensions as essential. It's also interesting, when 
you look at old photographs, that the natural ridge forms a third grid, an 
additional way to organize planning for the site. These old images are 
fascinating. You can see some of the buildings that are missing. You can 
get some sense of what each of these elements was for but maybe only 
some of that is worth preserving. The ephemeral nature of this place can't 
be over-stressed. 


We are all worried a "prettification" will sweeten up the landscape. 
Certainly that is a concern in the historic sector. At the same time, we 
think there should be a historic district which is as direct and as arbitrary 
as the military itself. We can't imagine that in the historic core one would 
change elements to have "historic" street lanterns conjured up from some 
developer paradise or attempt any prettification of these rather brutal 

Balance of Practical and Cultural Concerns 

It is wonderful to see this combination of nature and built form, 
even with its many paradoxes. Perhaps this place should be continually 
reassessed. There is a question about the future of the wooden buildings 
versus the masonry buildings. They are all subject to contemporary code 
requirements. It is amazing what is required these days to make a building 
legal. There has to be a careful analysis so there is a balance between the 
cultural importance of the structure and its physical condition. And, 
of course, there are many sweeping views, because this place isn't flat. 
Although there's a certain arbitrariness about the siting of these structures, 
every now and then one does seem to responded in a knowledgeable way 
to solar orientation. 

Continue Ephemeral Nature of Buildings 

The juxtaposition between the wonderfully husbanded landscape you see 
in the Valley with the abandoned nature up on the escarpment is obviously 
going to change with time as development takes place. But should it all 
change? Should every segment of this site be made into a well-cared-for 
landscape? Isn't it interesting to see how nature has claimed these roads 
and made them so romantic, and how a line that appears straight and true 
on an engineer's diagram actually goes up and down? Maybe temporary 
structures should be part of what happens here. But perhaps celebrations 
or fairs of all kinds, whether they are agricultural or crafts or what have 
you, could be here. Maybe we should not be thinking just about how to 
preserve and build permanent structures. Maybe temporary structures, 
things that come and go, are also inherent to this place. 


Frances Halsband 

I should just complete the 
picture by adding in the people 
and the activities. 

History is not simply figuring out 

what color the buildings used to be. 

In fact, there seem to be three principles that come from the history of this 
site and guide us in finding what are the compatible uses. 

O There has always been a public component to those uses. This site is 
just too big, it's just too important to turn it into a lot of little private 
back yards. 

Q There has always been a temporary and transitory quality to 

those uses and curiously the uses that are now proposed have that 
characteristic as well. 

Q Last and maybe in some ways most important — the site has 

always been characterized by large numbers of people accommodated 
in vast landscapes in very tiny buildings. So unlike almost any 
other site you can think of where large numbers of people translate 
into gigantic buildings, and many of them, here it's really people 
accommodated in a landscape and the buildings are almost peripheral. 

Use and Activities 

The five uses that we're presented with fit all of these principles. The 
public safety officers already on the site are using it for training exercises. 
What they are doing is of course the same thing the Army was doing in 
a bigger way which was preparing soldiers, training them. These people 
in uniform are really part of our community and are really interacting 
with all of us simultaneously. 


Overlap of Proposed Uses 

Sketch by Laurie Olin 

The artists describe their use as communal, not as individuals hiding 
away in studios and garrets. What they said they wanted were community 
spaces, community studios where people could work together, where 
organizations could hold seminars and conferences, could sponsor 
parades and community events. We have sketches drawn by an artist who 
was here as a soldier. The equestrian events were also described to us as 
gatherings. Many, many people, many, many horses, maybe 800 horses for 
a competition or an event which might take place outside or inside. The 
Youth Camp is, of course, another example of people coming together 
to use a landscape-in that case a lot of little people. And the Native 
Americans describe this place not only as a place of meditation but also 
as a gathering space for pow-wows, for people coming together. There 
are many other training possibilities. Others besides artists might work 
here. There might be museums, museums of history. You might not have 
trails only for horses - what about people trails, jogging, bicycle trails, 
promenades on the cliffs? 

And maybe all of these things coming together will eventually create another place: 

The diagrammatic plans for each of the user groups show there is one 
very intense area of overlap, one area that all the groups include in their 
program for site use. This is the area in between the two parade grounds. 
This overlap is the generating place where everybody gets together. This 
is where the indoor spaces, the indoor classrooms, offices and so on are 
gathered. The vast outdoor spaces used by each group spread out from 
this point. 


maybe all of these 

things coming together 
will eventually create 
another place 

Diagrams from the earlier schemes suggest other alternatives: 

Another way of looking at it is that there are these two big green open 
spaces and the original buildings which form an historic area. It is also a 
place where buildings already exist so if you want to get going fast and 
you need a place where you can turn on water and turn on the lights, 
those places are already here. In the future, development should respect in 
some way, those existing buildings. The area along the current access road 
is a future expansion area and needs to be studied. 


We looked at how this might be phased. We think that the way to begin 
is in this very intense area where there already are a couple of buildings 
and where all of the groups uses overlap. Everybody then gets a stake in 
the center. It looks almost like a town. The entry to the East Garrison, at 
the very beginning, is a front door on the highway at the start of the arts 
community with the start of the public safety officers training places from 
which they go forth to the green spaces. 

Overall Phasing of Development 

Possible Phases of Development 


Entrance Area 



The church at the top of the hill was the first gathering place for people. 
Or indeed the very first thing created here that might be some place that 
commemorates history. This is expressed in different ways in some of the 
earlier schemes that we saw, for example, one of the mess halls became an 
interpretive center. This is where the Fort Ord Alumni Association might 
have its headquarters and visitors might pick up a tour map and then 
disappear into those 44 square miles of landscape for the rest of the day. 

A second phase probably expands to completely encompass the first green 
space. We saw some examples of the town square developed right at the 
entrance. If the equestrians really get going there could be a great club 
house there. Maybe there could be a coffee shop or a restaurant. 

Some drawings shows the big green spaces being used temporarily for 
parking, but already there is a sense that this is a gathering space with 
activities surrounding it. 

Some of the existing buildings might be filled with new life as things get 
added on to the outsides of them. The interiors could be used in different 
ways so they're not always a kind of lonely ghost town. 

And then a final phase. There really still is not a way to preserve this 
open space as a gathering space where you can imagine that once 8000 
people lived in tents. Each one of those 8000 people was on their way to 
battle in a very distant place, all of them gazed out at that very peaceful 
valley. We need to preserve that view and still provide all of the activities 
all the way around it. 

At the maximum development of the site, the public safety officers would 
still have training facilities in the center but they would start reaching out 
and having other places that would be further away. Canine activities 
might just be a little bit further out to the edge or there might be other 
places far away from this site. 

This overlap is generating 
a place where everybody 
gets together. 


Running along the center ridge line, there is a great place for a hotel or a 
guest center eventually. This is high up so you're looking over the parade 
ground and then over into the valley but it's still right in the center. And 
then the village green, in the middle between the two big green spaces, is 
where you can stand, see it all and still be surrounded by central activities. 
It really does become a terrific place to live and work, and we're thinking 
that you should keep the rest of it free from building. 

And so last I just leave you with one more thought. I was never in the 
Army so I was one of those people that always roamed around on the 
edge of these military reservations and felt that mysterious strange things 
were happening in those spaces. I think our task today is to take down 
those boundaries, to take down those fences and somehow bring together 
the communities, in this case the communities at the bottom of the hill, 
with the spaces at the top. 






,:' ,«&.** 


East Garrison has the kind of quality as a place 
of national meaning, as an extraordinary landscape 
and as a place of opportunity . . . 

Robert Harris 

There is a level of interest and a quality of leadership already existing 
within this community that gives us the sense that we could rely on 
more than magic, or at least something a bit more tangible than magic 
to make East Garrison the kind of place we are talking about. 

So we want to first encourage you to try to maintain the good progress and the collaborative 
will that's brought you this far, and then as soon as possible, we suggest three initiatives for 
early action. 

Organize more formally for the common good of this place. We think that some kind of over- 
arching organization, maybe a board of overseers, should become the steward of the place. It 
is possible to organize in a way that allows each of the entities that wants to be present here 
to maintain its own independence, its own initiative, to have it's own responsibility for its own 
welfare. But there are a whole set of things that need to be done in common. Our impression 
is that there is good leadership. We are impressed by the quality of care and interest that is 
present. We also know that has a possibility of being transitory, that the best people move on 
to other adventures, to other possibilities, that people come and go. The East Garrison needs 
a continuing organization of stewards with a sense of vision and memory, and a similar set of 
ambitions for the future, to maintain the forward progress over time as individuals have new 
ideas and new interests and go off to work on other projects. 

But meanwhile, there are some very specific tasks for the organization. 

First, of course, is to represent all the interests for common effectiveness. There are 
things that you need to join together to do which you can't do individually. You should 
have a common voice, a common perspective, to impress upon those who may still have 
more authority than you that you know what you're doing, and that you're wanting to do 
it together, and that you know that what you are proposing will be good for everyone. 


Second, there needs to be an organization whose task it is to sustain the fundamental 
qualities and shared vision of the place. This is not a minor matter. It needs to be 
constructed properly so that the vision can be continued. 

Third, an organization is necessary to seek cooperation and funding for those things that 
you absolutely require for infrastructure and for all matters related to the whole of East 
Garrison, and to fight off other initiatives, to protect yourself against ideas that come 
from afar. There are times when investors may come forward-and money always seems 
welcome-but the investors may not be the right ones, and perhaps you ought to wait for 
the next one or find others. An organization is required for all those things that you want 
to do together that have to do with funding and action year by year by year into the 
future. There is a need for a board to manage the land use and development issues which 
are never going to be fully settled, not only not today, but not ever. The land use and 
development matters have to do with the life of this place and with new ambitions which 
will develop from time to time. There needs to be a cooperative and collaborative way to 
sort matters out and to manage them over time. 

And finally an organization is necessary to manage the events schedule. We've already 
heard from you about fantastic exhibitions of all kinds, about equestrian events, about all 
kinds of arts events, and about military reunions for alumni of 1942, '43, '44. All those 
sorts of things will happen, which will be good for the economy of the adjacent cities, 
essential for the life of this place, and deeply meaningful in those great greens. We think 
you ought to protect the great greens for exuberant life, week by week by week, month, 
by month, by month, not just now and again, but over time creating something which is 
very active and very lively. 

Initiate an historic site survey. 

It's really a matter of coming together, of developing a consensus about what matters and 
what doesn't, of learning how to reach consensus about the place-defining elements. Such 
a study requires agreement about what is really crucial to you, what do you all love about 
it, what do you remember about it, what about it is critical in national terms and in the 
terms of individual veterans? Such a study is necessary to create a plan about where and 
how to develop new construction. Indeed, where will you welcome new construction? 
Where ought you to be exuberant about that, and where not? You need this study in order 
to help people not to go down the wrong roads, for decisions about this place to be made 
without strife, without its being full of red tape, so those who want to take action, and 
have the means to take action, can know where they would be welcome and how they 
could go forward in a rather unfettered and open way. 

An historic survey is absolutely necessary for funding. At the moment that you come 
forward for restoration planning or for restoration itself, or for adaptive re-use of the 
existing buildings, you must have a plan so that you don't have preservation organizations 
and national societies and others wondering about that and funding organizations 
wondering about whether they should support you or not, or wondering whether they 
are about to be in the midst of a great mess. So we think that the historic site survey is 
essential, that you ought to try and get that underway as soon as possible. 


Finally, continue the planning process. 

All the parties and the national interests who are at the table, and all of those who are 
currently here with a sense of national interest, ought to remain at the table in this 
continued planning effort. The National Endowment for the Arts and the University 
of California at Berkeley have been generous, and we think effective, but we think you 
need to find the means to go beyond that, to move from pro bono services, from a kind 
of volunteerism, from the sporadic character of that, from people operating in a way 
without portfolio, to a more substantial dedicated and ultimately more effective 
profesional set of relationships with those who you trust and in whom you have 
confidence, but with real leadership, real professional services, in order to take you to 
the next step. 

There ought to be a schedule of how you expect to get from step to step. How to meet 
funding cycles, how to meet grant cycles, how to get the approvals made, how to move 
this thing forward so you can make progress so you can have a sense not entirely just of 
closure, but of a timely meeting of the schedule that is required in order to realize your 
ambitions. Such a schedule will avoid the impression that "here's another study, how long 
is this going to go on", but will give you a real sense of how to do the planning, and how 
to get it done, and how to get it done in a professional enough way that you can have a 
sense of inclusiveness and a sense of completeness and thoroughness in the work that's to 
be done. 

Finally then, we think that the East Garrison has the kind of quality as a place of national 
meaning, as an extraordinary landscape and as a place of opportunity for this region that 
merits the great effort you have directed toward its reuse; and that merits, as well, the next 
level of interest and effort to take you where you want to go. 




Making a Computer Model 

Peter Bosselmann 

Following the design charrettes and the national panel analysis, 
discussions about the future of the East Garrison focused again on legal 
and administrative issues related to the transfer from military to civilian 
ownership. The question-how should the property be conveyed-had 
become increasingly controversial. Two types of conveyances were 
considered. The Monterey County Board of Supervisors proposed an 
Economic Development Conveyance and had approved a draft mixed-use 
plan that would bring this property under the jurisdiction of the county. 
The county would lease or sell the land to various individuals or 
organizations interested in developing pieces of the land consistent with 
a mixed-use concept. A second type of conveyance would also bring the 
land under the jurisdiction of the county, but the property would be trans- 
ferred from the Army via the Department of Education directly to 
Monterey Peninsula Community College. Under this conveyance, the 
community college would establish a permanent police training facility. 
The type of conveyance became a particularly sensitive issue. If conveyed 
directly to the college, all future uses in addition to police training, would 
have to be compatible with the law enforcement activities. If conveyed 
under the Economic Development alternative, all police-related activities 
would have to be compatible with a general mixed-use concept. Police 
officers practicing helicopter landings, assault tactics, and defensive 
driving would have to move to other locations. 

Throughout the summer of 1997 the parties were deadlocked over the 
nature of the conveyance. In October the Army requested clarification 
and the Fort Ord Reuse Authority scheduled a hearing to act on the 
Army's request. At a special meeting FORA members voted in favor 
of the County's proposal for an Economic Development Conveyance, 
thus paving the way for a planning process that would lead to preparation 
of a master plan. To assist the county in the preparation of such a 
plan, the Berkeley Environmental Simulation Laboratory produced a 
three-dimensional computer model. Anticipating many of the issues 
the county planners would address, this model was designed to show 
the extent and character of new development on the site. The model 
was made to be flexible, to show alternative developments, to test 
compatibility, and, most importantly, to illustrate the phasing of 
future uses. 

Making the East Garrison Computer Model 

The model was produced from geodesic data supplied by the county. 
A view of the "skeleton" that is at the base of the model is shown here. 
Using photographic information from aerial photographs, a texture map 
was created and stretched over the terrain. Thus the model displays 
the contours of the land, the escarpment, the ravines, and the ridges 
and swales. In addition, existing buildings and structures were added 
into the model. 

Fly Over the Central Parade Ground 


A Fly Over the East Garrison 

Through computer animations it is possible to "fly" over the rolling terrain 
and view the military grid that was laid upon the land as well as see all 
existing structures. All buildings were modeled three-dimensionally. 

Detailed Studies of Future Developments 

In areas of the model where future development was anticipated, a greater 
modeling detail was employed. As the model is modified specific designs 
can be inserted and viewed at eye-level. As an example, the site for a 
possible hotel and spa is illustrated here. At this time no specific design 
has been prepared, nor is there a developer who has proposed such a 
structure, but the county is interested in exploring a spa hotel on this site. 
Located at the end of the central ridge and near the edge of the 
escarpment, a site has been designated for a hotel. The building shown 
here would accommodate 150 rooms, all taking advantage of sweeping 
views over the Salinas River Valley and towards the mountains beyond. 
The volume of the structure has been placed upon the model and is 
viewed from critical locations. The simulations, for example, from the 
valley floor, can be used to articulate design guidelines, such as 
appropriate building heights, setbacks from the escarpment, and massing 
of the structure, that would guide the development of this particular site. 
The model is flexible; alternative building configurations can be inserted 
and viewed in the realistic context of the site. 

Study of Future Development 

Phasing of Future Activities 

Development of the East Garrison will take place over time, thus phasing 
of new activities will be important. Again the model can be used to plan 
ahead and discuss the sequence of events that might take place as known 
stakeholders start to inhabit the site and are joined by users yet unknown. 
Shown here are the prefabricated structures at the entrance to the 
central parade ground. A sequence of images illustrates events that 
depict the existing buildings modified to accommodate artist workshops. 
Then, the first in the row of mess halls is converted into the East 
Garrison Museum and historic markers are placed in front of it to 
commemorate soldiers in formation; thirdly, new structures are added to 
house additional workshops where new businesses can be established. 

As planning for the East Garrison proceeds, the model will be a tool to 
review designs before decisions are made. The model will help to imagine 
the future and will remind those who use the model of the goals stated at 
the beginning of this work: 

• to learn how we might shape the land in ways that would serve 
the whole community, 

• to find new democratic practices as an example for this region, 
the state, and the nation, 

• to discover how to share a stewardship with the land itself. 

Phasing Future Activities 



Design explorations which included site walks, community workshops, 
the development of schemes for the East Garrison's future, and 
analysis by a panel of nationally known architects led to a set of 
findings and recommendations for the East Garrison. These findings 
address the special nature of the site, its regional and historic 
context, as well as the interests of current stakeholders and 
local governments. 

The East Garrison is a place of uncommon quality formed 
by the relationship between the geometry of the garrison grid 
and the landscape features of the site. 

The uncommon quality of the site is central to understanding the 
schemes developed by the University of California, Berkeley, design teams 
and is the focus of the recommendations made by the national panel. 
Future development of the site must keep the relationship of nature and 
constructed geometry recognizable by preserving the site characteristics. 
Natural site characteristics include land form and vegetation: swales, 
recognizable ridges, ravines, the escarpment, oak groves and glades and 
the landscape configurations they form. Site characteristics created by 
military use include the layout of the garrison grid, existing buildings, 
structures and other traces of past use. 

Development and design of new buildings should preserve the somewhat 
rough aesthetics of a military base. To beautify the buildings, structures 
or fixtures of the site would be inappropriate and in contrast with its 
historic character. 

Some areas are more suited than others for certain types of construction, 
this needs further investigation. The main criteria of such an 
investigation would be the scale and character of adjacent buildings 
and structures, the overall fit with the site's character, and visibility from 
the valley floor. 



**tm*. ..- nm&P* 


Parade Ground 

The western and central parade grounds are key to understanding the 
historic meaning of the site. Although there are many ways to allow for 
historic interpretation of the site's historical form-and the three schemes 
offer three different suggestions-the geometry of the parade grounds 
must remain an understandable part of the site's development. 

Oak Grove 

All workshop design explorations gave particular attention to the area 
between the two parade grounds. Here the particular land form and an 
existing oak grove together form a place of relative small scale and 
intimate character. Several of the proposed programs could overlap in this 
location and provide an opportunity to develop, over time, a community 
meeting place. The existing site should be protected until final plans are 
made for this area. 



In general any new development should fit into the existing spatial units 
formed by the elements of landform and vegetation discussed earlier. The 
northwestern swale is such a spatial unit. It is that portion of the site that 
would most readily accommodate buildings of relatively large floorplate 
size because of its low visibility from the floor of the Salinas River Valley 
and its relative remoteness from other (historic) parts of the East 

The straight lineup of structures (which can be seen in the 1941 aerial 
photo on p. 10) along the straight line of the central ridge is a key site 
element that should be incorporated into future site development. It is 
along this ridge that new development should be concentrated. 


The swath of land along the escarpment is a major asset to the site and 
should be protected. It should remain open to the public and made 
accessible to pedestrians, bicyclists, and possibly equestrians. 

As part of Fort Ord, the East Garrison is a place of national historic significance. 
The Fort's presence played an important role in the Monterey region and the 
East Garrison has personal meaning to tens of thousands of veterans. 

Additional research is needed to learn about the history of the East 
Garrison itself. Some of the important questions include who was 
responsible for siting it, how was it originally planned and what 
determined its layout. What were the specific uses of individual 
buildings, or the two large tent areas? Who were the soldiers who 
served here and what were their stories? 


This research might redefine the boundary of the historic district. It will 
also help to determine the general approach to historic preservation of 
existing buildings and structures, and their particular spatial relationship 
to one another as well as to the parade grounds. 

The current effort to establish an alumni group of veterans and others 
associated with Fort Ord suggests that a military museum or other public 
interpretive information might appropriately be located at the East 

It is critical to establish an organization to support the East Garrison itself, 
to act as steward for this very special place, and nurture a vision of future 

An umbrella group, charged with the stewardship of the East Garrison, 
could facilitate the ongoing exchange of ideas and concerns among 
current and future stakeholders. This organization would be composed of 
the East Garrison stakeholders, who would also represent their interests 
in the planning process. 

Presently stakeholders, although working toward a shared vision, speak 
primarily for the interests of the individual groups they represent. 
However, other interests and investors will certainly enter the East 
Garrison development process in the future. The County's support of 
mixed uses for the site will require these groups to develop a plan for 
the shared use of the site. 

An umbrella group could provide a powerful formal voice both for the 
East Garrison and for the stakeholders in the overall Fort Ord planning 
process. The organization would be responsible for communicating the 
vision for the East Garrison to various public agencies involved in the 
site's development. 

Finally, this would be a group organized specifically to steward the land, 
to maintain and preserve its special characteristics and assets, and to 
guide the development process. 

Phased development of the East Garrison will allow current stakeholders 
and future generations to enjoy this site. 

Projects can be developed incrementally as financial support becomes 
available to program groups. Phased development is also more flexible: 
changes in program needs and requirements can be addressed, 
opportunities that become available can be explored. 


Establish a continuous work relationship with a set of trusted professionals 
who can provide reliable information and guidance in the future design and 
planning process. 

Professionals can prepare necessary additional research and design 
proposals. Further exploration of the East Garrison design schemes will 
allow the community to visualize opportunities and consequences of reuse 
proposals. Professionals provide necessary support for the planning process 
required for the conveyance of the property. Pro bono efforts will always be 
dependent on third party budgets. 

Evaluate the economic viability of proposals for East Garrison use. 

Thorough cost analysis for each proposed program is of great importance in 
determining how to establish a first presence on the site for the respective 
stakeholders. Each program must be able to maintain the property conveyed 
to it or shared with others and it must be able to support its share of 
infrastructure costs. 

The proposals made by each of the stakeholders represented a full 
build-out of each program. Program development should be phased and a 
sound economic base must be required at each stage as the groups work 
toward the final plan. 

Evaluate thoroughly all transportation issues involving the East Garrison, 
particularly the proposed major road which will cross the site. Intervene as 
necessary to support, move, or eliminate this road. 

The California Department of Transportation has proposed this road 
largely because of traffic generated outside of the East Garrison. Regional 
transportation decisions should consider local impact for the East Garrison. 
The current proposal reflects transportation needs unrelated to the East 
Garrison itself. A major access road through the East Garrison suggests 
a level of development on the site beyond that proposed by any of the 
stakeholders, public agencies or design studies. Any necessary roads should 
be designed to harmonize with the character of the site and preserve its 
sense of remoteness. 

Retest the idea of housing on the East Garrison site. 

Housing is not permitted in unincorporated parts of the county and the 
national panel did not recommend that housing be a major land use 
component. However, two o\ the three design schemes showed residential 
uses at the East Garrison in connection with full development of expanded 
community activities and infrastructure on the site. 


National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 

Samina Quraeshi Director of Design, National Endowment for the Arts 

Christine Saum Design and Leadership Specialist, National Endowment for the Arts 

Project Director 

Donlyn Lyndon 

East Garrison Participants 

Linda Allen 

Bob Enea 

Donna Blitzer 

Ken Brown 

Mary Buskirk 

Francesca Farr 

Ed Gould 

Gloria C. Mattos-Hughes 

Richard Meyer 

Philip Nash 

Robert Perez 

Fred Pierce 

Chair, Department of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley; 
Coordinator, Mayors Institute on City Design: West 


Monterey Equestrian Group 

Monterey Equestrian Group 

Office of Representative Farr 

Monterey County Sheriffs Office 

Arts Habitat 

Arts Habitat 

Monterey Peninsula College 

Arts Habitat 

Arts Habitat 

Monterey Peninsula College 

Monterey County Sheriffs Office 

Akicita Luta Intertribal Society 

Monterey County 

Edith Johnsen 
Don Jordan 
Tom Mancini 
Veronica Ferguson 
Bill Phillips 
Jim Colangelo 
Dennis Potter 

/ Fort Ord Reuse Authority 

Supervisor, Monterey County Board of Supervisors 

Mayor, City of Seaside; Chair, Fort Ord Reuse Authority 

Council Member, City of Seaside; Member, Fort Ord Reuse Authority 

Deputy County Administrative Officer, Monterey County 

Director, Monterey County Planning and Budding Department 

Monterey County Intergovernmental Affairs 

Manager, Monterey County Planning Services; Member, 

Fort Ord Reuse Authority 

Other Workshop Attendees 

Fran Atkins 
Carole Bagne-Funora 
Steve Chidester 
David Cloutier 
Alinda Colin 
Adrian Hakayama 
Arthur McLoughlin 
Rich Montori 
Salvador F. Munoz 
Matt Neitheimer 
Patti Parisi 
Dana Peterson 
Joan Pinio 
Simon Reyes 
Grace Silva-Santella 
Brock Stedman 
Meg Welden 
Jonathan Williams 
Paupu Yep 

Specter Dance 

Monterey Peninsula College 

Monterey Equestrian Group 

Cultural Council for Monterey Co. 

CA Lawyers for the Arts 

BRAC, Army 

Monterey Bay Youth Camp 

Monterey Peninsula College 

S. Munoz & Associates 


KQED Radio & Coastal Weekley 

Monterey County Sheriffs Office 

Monterey County Parks 

S. Munoz & Associates 

Marina Planning Commission 

California State Parks 

Monterey County Parks 

California State Parks 

San Andreas Regional Center 

National Panel 

Frances Halsband R.M. Kliment &f Frances Halsband Architects 

Hugh Hardy Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates, New York 

Robert Harris Professor, Department of Architecture, University of Southern California 

University of California, Berkeley 
Design Team Faculty & Professionals 

Donlyn Lyndon Chair, Department of Architecture 

Harrison Fraker Dean, College of Environmental Design 

Peter Bosselmann Professor, Departments of Architecture, 

Landscape Architecture, City and Regional Planning 
Lisa Findley Lecturer, Department of Architecture 

Richard Shepard Architect, Quraeshi/Shepard Associates 

Stephanie Bothwell Associate Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture, 

Auburn University 

University of California, Berkeley 
Design Team Members 

Ashish Balla Design Team A 

David Evans Design Team A 

Pritti Gogoi Design Team A 

Erin Miller Design Team A 

Joe Anglim Design Team B 

Taichi Goto Design Team B 

Ellen Miramontes Design Team B 

Skip Lowney Design Team C 

Todd Lynch Design Team C 

Fernando Marti Design Team C 

Nam Son Ngo Design Team C 

Environmental Simulation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 

Peter Bosselmann Director 

William Kanemoto Laboratory Manager 

Judith Stilgenbauer Research Assistant 

Community Participation Facilitator 

Mayors Institute on City Design: West / Consultant 

Ron Thomas Community Design Exchange, Seattle now Sustainable Racine, Wisconsin 

Mayors Institute on City Design: West / Staff 

Thomas Kronemeyer Assistant Coordinator 

Brian Laczko Assistant Coordinator 

Josh Kirschenbaum Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 

University of California, Berkeley 
Nora Watanabe Center for Environmental Design Research, UC Berkeley 

Annette Quinn Center for Environmental Design Research 

Kimberley Allen Center for Environmental Design Research 

Report Prepared by Emily Marthinsen and Thomas Kronemeyer 
Enhancement of Charrette Drawings and Illustrations by Joe Anglim 

Graphic Design by Tenazas Design, San Francisco 


What makes this so special? What gives you the 
great opportunity of a future of meaning and 
significance, a kind of sustainable future over 
time, is the cultural history of what this place 
was about, how it was used, what it means 

To freshly reoccupy this place, with dignity, 
with a sense of the past, but with enthusiasms 
and exuberanc 

■ r *